24 votes, average: 4.96 out of 524 votes, average: 4.96 out of 524 votes, average: 4.96 out of 524 votes, average: 4.96 out of 524 votes, average: 4.96 out of 5 (24 votes, average: 4.96 out of 5)
You need to be a registered member to rate this post.
Loading...

Academic Fraud at the Highest Levels

An article appeared in the Atlantic this past week that exposes academic fraud at the highest levels, involving millions of dollars, unscrupulous scholars, and evangelical Christians so intent on proving the truth of the Bible that they were willing, even eager, to engage in unethical and fraudulent activities to do so.  It seems weird, but the case involves Greek manuscripts of the New Testament.

The article was written by one of the country’s best investigative journalists, Ariel Sabar, who earlier had exposed for once and all the modern forgery known as “The Gospel of Jesus’ Wife” in another article in the Atlantic  (I’ve blogged on this forgery a number of times as the story unfolded; just search for “Jesus’ wife” on the blog and you’ll see the posts).    Sabar has a forthcoming book on the topic, Veritas: A Harvard Professor, A Con Man, and the Gospel of Jesus’s Wife, due out in August.  I have read it in manuscript, and it is damning indeed.

So is the current article.  You can see it here:  https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2020/06/museum-of-the-bible-obbink-gospel-of-mark/610576/   It implicates the Museum of the Bible, Hobby Lobby, the evangelical Christian billionaires behind them, and a number of individuals employed by them, all named, including one of the foremost scholars of ancient Greek manuscripts in the world, an American who was a professor at Oxford and  the general editor for the Oxyrhynchus Papryri, named Dirk Obbink.

A brief word of background.  The Oxyrynchus Papyri collection is named after an ancient city in Egypt, Oxyrhynchus, where two now-famous British archaeologists named B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt uncovered a treasure-trove of papyrus manuscripts starting at the very end of the nineteenth century.  That in itself is an interesting story.

Scholars had been interested in old manuscripts for several centuries, but in the 19th century some intrepid souls made it their life mission to go abroad to find them.  For the most part, they searched old libraries and old monasteries and other places where manuscripts were being stored.  But Grenfell and Hunt wanted to find them archaeologically, by digging them up.  How though does one do that?  You can’t simply go to, say, Egypt, and start digging in the desert.

Grenfell and Hunt came up with a bright idea by that now may seem kind of obvious.  Ancient manuscripts would obviously be found in an abandoned ancient city.  But where in the city?  Answer: the garbage dump.  That’s where ancient people would dispose of their manuscripts when they were worn out or had been replaced by newer copies or were otherwise simply not needed.

And so Grenfell and Hunt decided to dig up a garbage dump.  They chose the city of Oxyrhynchus, whose location was known but which had never been excavated.  They started digging, and they struck gold right away.  Their team dug there for years.  And they found tons of stuff.  Unbelievable amounts of stuff.  Most of what they found was in fragments.  And it comprised all kinds of written materials, on papyrus, the ancient equivalent of paper.  Most of it was administrative, legal, documentary kinds of material: land deeds, sales receipts, divorce certificates, and so on; there were lots of letters (personal correspondence); and there were literary texts, for example texts of Homer and of Greek poets, and, as it turns out, of the Bible.  This is hard to believe, but they found around a million manuscripts altogether (again, mainly in fragments, lots and lots of tiny fragments, some so tiny that it’s hard to know what they are).

Once such materials were seen to be valuable, a market was created, as museums and individuals wanted to get their hands on such things.  But what scholars want, of course, isn’t something to hang on their wall and brag about; they want these texts published and explained–especially, for most of us, the literary texts, copies of ancient books, either ones that we already know in whole or part or ones that we have never had.  If there are deeply felt reasons for wanting such materials, outside of pure scholarship, the prices can get astronomical.

That also means that those involved in obtaining such materials can face extraordinary temptation to commit fraud, for example by forging such works, claiming they are something that they are not, lying about where they were “discovered,” etc.  The stakes are unusually high.

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri collection is held at Oxford University.  Dirk Obbink is a world-class and famous papyrologist – that is, an expert on ancient papyrus texts.  He was the general editor of the collection, that is, the one responsible for organizing the publication of the texts, a task that will take roughly forever.  It may be hard to believe, but since Grenfell and Hunt started started publishing the most amazing materials themselves, something like 1% of the collection has been published.

Why so few?  Well, for one thing, there ain’t a lot of people in the world who can do this kind of thing.  I’m a trained textual scholar and *I* certainly can’t do it.  It takes far more technical training than I have.  So the workers are few, even though the crops are white for harvest.  And it takes an incredibly long time to do an analysis of even one scrap of papyrus: to read it, restore, it date it, describe it, and so on and on.

So, back to the story.  I won’t give it all away  here, but simply urge you to read the article.  The beginning of the story, before anyone knew there was even an issue to address or the possibility of a problem, involved a debate I had with Dan Wallace, professor of New Testament at the conservative evangelical Dallas Theological Seminary, on Feb. 1, 2012.  In order to support his contention that we really can know the exact words of the original New Testament, Dan announced that the earliest copy had recently been discovered, a copy of Mark that actually dated to the first century (we have nothing that comes close to that early otherwise).  But he wouldn’t say anything about it or give us any information other than that it had been reliably dated by one of the top experts in the world.

It was a stunner, and I don’t need to say anything more about the debate or the aftermath, since I’ve dealt with it on the blog a lot (just search for first-century Mark).  That was the extent of my involvement in the affair, except as a rather highly interested onlooker.  But the claim that we had such an early copy of part of the New Testament thrilled, titillated, and perplexed scholars, and everyone wanted to know where such a thing had turned up and why there was so much secrecy about it.

As it turns out, this alleged manuscript was published years later, and it’s a tiny scrap, from the late second or early third century.  The most important point for Sabar’s article, though, is that this was just the tip of the iceberg.  Once investigators wondered why a manuscript that dated from around 200 CE was being touted as coming from as early as 70 CE (virtually the time Mark actually wrote his Gospel), and wondering who had dated it, and who had possession of it, and how they had acquired possession of it, and whether they may have acquired other manuscripts that also were not what they purported to be, and on and on – once investigators did their work, they realized that not only was the claim about the dating and significance of this manuscript completely false, there was a lot of other fraud going on.

The article shows that Obbink was at the heart of it.  He made millions of dollars selling manuscripts that he actually did not own, sometimes by convincing buyers that they were something other than what they were – including not just this scrap of Mark but also several other biblical manuscripts that he also falsely claimed (knowing otherwise) were from the first century.

Why would anyone pay millions of dollars for such things?  The Green family that owns Hobby Lobby was acquiring manuscripts for the Museum of the Bible that opened up in Washington D.C. in 2017.  The family is passionately evangelical in its religious commitments; the Museum is designed to show not only the cultural significance of the Bible (e.g. in the fight against slavery and for women’s rights; some critics, of course, might find these claims a shade dubious) and its religious importance, but also to prove that the Bible is accurate in every way and a completely reliable guide to what one should think and how one should live. In other words, it is a museum on a mission.

There have been huge questions raised about the ethics of the entire enterprise of the museum – most importantly by biblical scholars Joel Baden and Candida Moss in their damning book Bible Nation: The United States of Hobby Lobby.  But now we have a fuller article that exposes even more of the depths of deceit and fraud used to further its religious agenda, involving unscrupulous financial transactions, scholarly lies, deceptive practices, faked antiquities, claims by members of the family and employees connected with the Museum that they knew were false but that they advanced all to serve their religious agenda.  And, for some, to raise their public profile and to turn a hefty profit.

Don’t take my word for it.  Read the article.

Let me say that I know a lot of the people mentioned in the article, on both sides.  Including some of the people who became involved with the museum and its mission only after this long period of fraudulent activity had occurred (including my oldest friend in the field).  These particular people are upright and honest, committed to the purposes of the Museum, but eager to clean up its sullied reputation.  Still, it is deeply sullied indeed.

The whole mess returns me to a question I have pondered intensely for years.  On one hand, I completely understand the profit motive.   Obbink does not appear to have had any religious or ideological motivation behind what he did; the article suggests he simply did it for the money.  OK, we all get that one.  We’re talking millions of dollars here.

But the others who were involved, the evangelical Christians intent to prove the accuracy of the Bible at just about any cost, literally.  Why would they go to such lengths?

My question is two-pronged.  The first prong is really just puzzling to me, and I wonder how often such people see the irony.  Why would they invest hundreds of millions of dollars to prove that Jesus spoke the truth instead of simply following his teachings?  (Think Matthew 25:31-46.)  My personal view is that billionaires should spend their money any way they want, and they certainly don’t need my permission.  But if what they want is to advance the agenda of Jesus, why would they spend many millions on scraps of papyrus instead of using the same funds to help people in desperate need?

The second prong of my question is far more damning.  It’s a matter I have reflected on deeply for many years.  Why are some intensely religious people so eager to perpetuate deceit and lies in order to prove the “truth”?

 


The Remarkable Story of Masada: Guest Post by Jodi Magness
Startling and Disturbing Development Involving Manuscripts at the Museum of the Bible

61

Comments

  1. Avatar
    Chasdot  May 24, 2020

    A military chaplain and I (business professor) had a discussion on the variations (horizontal reading as you state) of the resurrection of Jesus. He wrote back, “The aha moment for me was that my faith is a choice. I can choose to believe divine truth, and I can hold it up to earthly fact, and accept both because the purpose of truth isn’t necessarily to communicate factual data.”

    Those of us who teach at all college levels realize that X and 1X/1 are still the same thing. I’m still scratching my head over the chaplain’s statement.

    • Avatar
      nichael  May 25, 2020

      It sounds as if your friend has been studying his Kierkegaard.

    • Avatar
      flshrP  May 25, 2020

      That Atlantic article is hilarious. What a bunch of incompetent idiots and crooks! You can’t make this stuff up.

    • Avatar
      flshrP  May 25, 2020

      Your military chaplain is begging the question. He wouldn’t know “divine truth” from fantasy because there’s no difference between the two. His words are meaningless.

  2. Avatar
    Robby  May 24, 2020

    Regarding the second prong, in my opinion, I think people will double down on what they have believed and taught, even when it was confronted as falsehood because admitting failure is extremely humiliating. For them, to admit they were wrong is equivalent to being a bad Christian and not really hearing the voice of God or being led by the Holy spirit. Being right, even if it’s only in their own minds is extremely important.

  3. Avatar
    doug  May 24, 2020

    Perhaps none of us is honest all the time. But authoritarianism and dishonesty seem to go hand in hand.

  4. Avatar
    dwcriswell  May 24, 2020

    The desire to prove what you intuitively or instinctively believe is so strong yet so insidious. In scientific research there is the phenomena of confirmation bias, where in some cases scientists alter data or just misinterpret their scientific results in order to prove or confirm what they believe. For years it has been debated whether the geneticist Gregory Mendel faked or modified his data, since it is too perfect to believe that he accurately collected and recorded the data. The prominent geneticist Daniel Fairbanks with others extensively analyzed the issue and came to the conclusion in the book “Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy” that Mendel suffered from conformation bias, he probably adjusted his data to make it look better since he was convinced his ideas were right. So the compulsion to prove your beliefs is a universal behavior. Of course Mendel was a monk.

  5. Avatar
    John Uzoigwe  May 24, 2020

    Dr Bart , we know that there were many apocalyptic preacher before and during Jesus days most of which had followers. How do we know some of the sayings or account attributed to Jesus were not sayings from other apocalyptic preachers?
    (Since stories get mixed up during oral tradition)
    There’s a possibility that for some reasons Jesus’ just appear more popular just as Paul theology beat out other theologies. What do you think?

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      There’s actually no way to know. But if they can be shown to have been said by Jesus as well, it would mean that he picked up on someone else’s idea — but it would still be one he subscribed to.

      • Avatar
        kylemorehead  May 26, 2020

        Dr. Ehrman,
        Did you ever address the findings in April DeConick’s work on the gospel of Judas? I know you’ve written several books and chapters about the gospel of Judas, but am unaware if you ever dealt with her findings directly. Also in the 2nd edition of National Geographic’s “The Gospel of Judas”, which of course you were involved with, do you agree with Gesine Schenke Robinson’s conclusion of the text?

        • Bart
          Bart  May 27, 2020

          We’ve publicly disagreed (I think she places way too much weight on what the New Testament writers call “demons” rather than how the word gets used in broader contexts), but I haven’t discussed it in print. We’re friends and I’m just not interesetd in going there. And I don’t remember Gesine’s conclusion well enough to comment on it, other than to say that I remember disagreeing! But I’ve modified my view a bit, softened it. You can see my perspective in the Introduction to the Gospel of Judas in my Apocryphal Gospels or in The Other Gospels; that intro was written by my co-editor Zlatko Plese, but it’s the one I hold now as well. Judas is far above the other apostles, but is not yet at the level of the true Gnostics.

          • Avatar
            kylemorehead  May 27, 2020

            Thank you for your reply. What made you soften your view? Have you spoken publicly about the change in your view? Outside of your agreement with Dr. Plese’s introduction to the gospel of Judas in your book?

          • Bart
            Bart  May 29, 2020

            I’ve spoken about it, yes, but I haven’t written on the Gospel of Judas much since then. I softened it because Plese convinced me, but not on the grounds DeConnick advanced (it doesn’t have to do with whether “demon” is evil, but on a closer reading of how Judas is being precisely described in relationship to the truth)

  6. Avatar
    nichael  May 24, 2020

    First, thanks for the pointer to The Atlantic article (which also contained pointers to several othe great articles).

    But if I could make so bold as to add a “third prong” to your question: Why is it so often necessary to grossly exaggerate the meaning and importance of any such finds?

    For the sake of arguments let’s pretend for a moment that the fragment really existed and was precisely what it was claimed to be. That would surely be a stunning, miraculous find that all scholars would applaud. (And we can certainly understand why the Greens would want to acquire such a gem for their museum.)

    But in what possible sense does any of this (a manuscript with a handful of Greek words, however ancient) prove –or even significantly support– the primary claim that what we now possess represents the original text of the New Testament?

    (It so often seems to be the case that it’s not enough that such discoveries are “simply” really great; they need to presented as if they are be all and end all, the best in history.)

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      Exactly. It has NOTHING to do with the issue. Smoke and mirrors, but *very* common among a certain kind of evangelical apologetic discourse. I’ve posted on that before but think it might be a good one to revisit.

  7. Avatar
    Hormiga  May 24, 2020

    > He made millions of dollars

    This is not one of the important questions here, but I wonder what he did with the money.

    Even a few millions, prudently invested, will provide a good living style for a long, long time. And, the Texas castle thing aside, Obbink doesn’t seem to be given to extravagant expenditures.

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      My sense is that almost all of it will be demanded back. But I don’t know what he had in mind. One almost never does!

  8. Avatar
    veritas  May 25, 2020

    You know Bart, relevant to your final thoughts,money and power drives many to reach new heights. Bill Gates paid an astonishing, thirty million dollars for some of Da Vinci’s science writings/findings. The Mormons, paid an astounding thirty five million for a copy of an original Oliver Cowdery early manuscript of the Book of Mormon. More recently, some one coughed up five hundred thousand for Michael Jordan’ s original shoes he wore. Does wealth leave an absence of contentment? Our hearts and mind are acutely removed from truth and altruism. Maybe, Mark 8; 36-37 ,” For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his soul? 37 For what will a man give in exchange for his soul? and 1 Tim. 6; 9-10, ” 9 But those who want to get rich fall into temptation and a snare and many foolish and harmful desires which plunge men into ruin and destruction. 10 For the love of money is a root of all [g]sorts of evil, and some by longing for it have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs”, explains it all. Greed and power over discipleship.

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      In answer to your question: yes indeed! Hardly anyone, at any level, is content with what they have. Those who are have a potential for happiness.

    • Avatar
      veritas  May 25, 2020

      I want to clarify/correct my use of the word greed. It may imply that rich people are bad or something to some but that was not my intent. The proper word I needed to express is *pride/hubris*. Money and material worth is a reputable business within the wealth circle. Art, memorabilia, manuscripts, wine, cars, gold and many other items people pay an exuberant amount of money on has reasons. Many wealthy people do help the worthy causes worldwide, but there is also a recompense/return in their generosity that we may not always see/understand, like a luxury tax. An ad valorem tax placed on products that are deemed *non essential or unneeded*. This indirect tax in return raises the price of the goods which is incurred by the one who buys it. It is a game of investment that keeps raising the product’s value. My point, in a world of abundance, disparity still plays a major role. More than three billion people live on less than $2:50/day More than one billion live in extreme poverty, less than $1:25/day. Unicef reports more than twenty thousand children die each *day* of poverty/starvation. This my friends is reality and continues to rise!

      • Bart
        Bart  May 26, 2020

        Thanks. Could you give me the source for the Unicef statistic? My data are some years out of date just now.

        • Avatar
          veritas  May 26, 2020

          If you go to the W.H.O website and search ” A child under 15 dies every 5 seconds around the world”, by Fadela Chaib, you will get the story from Sept.18/2018. As you start reading in that first paragraph, there is a blue highlited *new mortality rates* that will redirect you to UNICEF and continue to see more evidence of the whole picture as these agencies work together. I estimated more or less that number(20,000) but it is fairly close,if not more, when you add it all up. Hope it helps.

          • Bart
            Bart  May 27, 2020

            Thanks. Very helpful.

      • Avatar
        Bewilderbeast  May 30, 2020

        I think you were right the first time, using the word ‘greed.’ People who have WAY too much money totally distort the value of things. It’s pathetic what they spend money on: things that a minute’s reflection shows are worth nothing compared to things of real lasting humanitarian or environmental value.
        Thanks Bart, for the Atlantic article. So glad to see it written in a fairly no-holds-barred fashion, naming the names of these liars.

  9. Avatar
    clerrance2005  May 25, 2020

    Prof Ehrman,
    This article has confirmed some words of mine. It kind of parallels what Jesus says in Matt 23:23 “Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law: judgment, mercy, and faith. These ought ye to have done and not to leave the other undone.

    Most Evangelicals have allowed religious sentiments, doctrines, dogma and views to override the weightier things that we all otherwise agree on (Love, Justice, Mercy, Justice etc – these are what I call the universal language). We seem to have lost out on the message of love and rather spend time and resources trying to prove idiosyncratic religious views.

    Missions in my view should have been geared towards promoting ‘the universal language’ instead of promoting religious doctrines because how we see the Divine is always subjective.

    Prof, if the field of Academia can be this compromised, how are we who base our study on scholarly works be any certain of what we are receiving as I have realized that these do take place in other fields such as health etc. as well. What is your advice?

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      Luckily its a system of checks and balances; so it’s best not to jump immediately on the most amazing recent bandwagon, but to let it see how it plays out….

  10. Avatar
    Hon Wai  May 25, 2020

    Deceit, lies, persecution of people holding “wrong” beliefs, have been perennial practices of religious people throughout the world throughout history. Maybe it has something to do with what the bestselling social psychologist Jonathan Haidt termed “the Righteous Mind” (see his book by this title).
    I can’t comment on any individuals, only general remarks: I would refrain from passing judgment on billionaires’ charitable givings, unless I have the information one way or another. I suspect many wealthy and committed evangelicals donate substantial amounts of money to churches in their home countries, and to missionary organisations in low-income countries. Some of the money promote evangelistic activities, while some would improve quality of life in the communities.

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      That’s absolutely right. Some evangelical “missions” are doing *amazing* — flat out *amazing* — work to help those in need. I need to say more about this on the blog.

      • Avatar
        flshrP  May 26, 2020

        What you say is certainly true. But in the background is the question of whether the incentive to do good is due to the evangelical beliefs that the individual has or to the intrinsic morality and goodness of the individual regardless of his religious beliefs. I think altruism is a better explanation.

        • Bart
          Bart  May 27, 2020

          I’m not sure those two are necessarily distinct categories.

  11. Avatar
    anthonygale  May 25, 2020

    How convinced are you these folks are genuinely motivated to perpetuate the truth? I suppose many probably are, yet I suspect consciously or unconsciously they might have other motives. Whether they be well meaning or not. Other contradictions baffle me. How does someone champion creationism yet celebrate the death of soldiers and hate homosexuals? Ignoring explicit commandments/instructions (love, forgive, be kind) yet adhering to conclusions they came to their own (I wonder if they’ve read Provers 3:5-6)?

    • Bart
      Bart  May 25, 2020

      I think there is probably a range, from completely committed and honest folk (I know hundreds of them) to real charlatans (I’ve known a few)

  12. Avatar
    jhbaker731  May 25, 2020

    Thank you Bart. I retire from teaching science in public schools this week after 36 years and didn’t know how I was going to make it financially. But I just enrolled in a papier-mâché class for making masks out of old papyrus so I could sell them to people for millions of dollars. AND.. I only live a stone’s throw from several Christian Universities…

  13. Avatar
    AstaKask  May 25, 2020

    The Noble Lie… from Plato and onwards it still haunts us. Just a little lie to do so much good… is it not worth it?

    I think there’s a third question as well – how could they imagine they wouldn’t get caught? The best minds in the fields would be working to test their case.

  14. Avatar
    DoubtingTom  May 25, 2020

    For thousands of years, those who run church and state have worked together to control and bilk citizens, turning them into slaves. The Hobby Lobby billionaires are continuing the long tradition. Though, I believe the influence of organized religions is waning in favor of worshipping the god of environmentalism, and the god of personal entitlement. They may have their money on the wrong horse.

  15. Rick
    Rick  May 25, 2020

    Professor,

    With respect to the importance Dr. Wallace (and I imagine others) placed on the portent of a First Century manuscript of Mark – Dated perhaps close to it’s autograph, what conclusion would they have us draw? In light say of the material you discuss in Jesus Before the Gospels? Assume arguendo a full copy of Mark appears with signature page signed by a Mark and dated June 1, 0070 and is very close to the latest best NovumTestamentum Gracie. That’s still 37 years of oral history story telling removed from what happened.

  16. Avatar
    Thespologian  May 25, 2020

    A bit off-topic: I’ve asked these same questions as it concerns stories we hear about supposed oligarchies with a bent on the bible that fund R&D for all kinds of destructive powers or mass control etc. You can’t help to ask: To what end? One intriguing answer I’ve heard cites a kind of eschatology. They want to encourage the end times, the Second Coming etc. by dividing the people and instigating war with other religions. I feel that Jesus’ return is paramount for those determined to be right. It is the central agenda of Jesus they’re most interested in. I think clarification on where Christians got this idea of a Second Coming and how it got completely out of control with the masses over time is a very important topic. Could you provide a refresher post?

    • Bart
      Bart  May 26, 2020

      I’m not sure what you’re referring to, about oligarchs stirring up destructive powers in order to bring the Second Coming??

      • Avatar
        Thespologian  May 26, 2020

        Suffice it to say there are people willing to pour millions of dollars into their belief system to “prove that the Bible is accurate in every way.” Not unlike Christian Zionists who give millions of dollars a year to see the fruition of Israel, which in fact, is also prerequisite for the Second Coming in their view. I don’t think it’s necessary to start a discussion on the myriad groups and their specific agendas. It’s remarkable how much money goes into these efforts but I’m not surprised by it. I think it’s motivated by personal interpretations and often with an eschatological basis. Please consider a post on the Second Coming.

  17. Avatar
    Lms728  May 25, 2020

    I LOVE this: “But if what they want is to advance the agenda of Jesus, why would they spend many millions on scraps of papyrus instead of using the same funds to help people in desperate need?” Why indeed? Perhaps because the agenda of Jesus isn’t what Christianity is about for them? And if not that, then what? (It’s enough to make a person cry.)

  18. Avatar
    roy  May 25, 2020

    kind of ties right in with your book Forged, people using lies and deceit to promote the TRUTH doesn’t it? all for the greater good of course

  19. Avatar
    Poohbear  May 26, 2020

    Once upon a time people didn’t care who wrote what, or when or where. The message, as implied in the NT documents themselves, is that temporal aspects don’t matter: it’s the message. The bible is the Word of God.

    The “scraps of paprus” came from modern scribes who challenged the bible and became the New Authority. They said if they had to invoke God to explain anything then they had failed. This sets up Confirmation Bias. Furthermore people are taught there are no truths – except of course, the truths of the scribes and their scraps. And in the narcissist and nihilist world of today that message resonates. The interpretation of scraps now matters.
    So anyone who wants to preach the Gospel has to contend with this. Sadly, they feel the need to find their own scraps.

  20. Avatar
    chrysgeorge  May 26, 2020

    A. Pascal’s wager is “so 1600s,” an outdated idiom; https://docs.google.com/document/d/1LUS5DQwGm9j4DotHP4BO8AP0q71B9DF-rr2F-c1x1FI/edit?usp=sharing | Chrys George.

    B. Firstly; a historical Jesus, the Christ? https://docs.google.com/document/d/1DwjIJoUdzkBJYE1sxMk791DAW4YJFDrk6-sVzjVrlfM/edit?usp=sharing | Chrys George.

You must be logged in to post a comment.